This function computes the growth rate of a numeric vector, typically representing a time series, with optional transformations like scaling, power, and lag differences.

## Details

The function calculates growth rates for a time series, allowing for scaling, exponentiation, and lag differences. It can be useful for financial data analysis, among other applications.

The growth rate is computed as follows:

If lags is positive and log_diff is FALSE: growth_rate = (((x / lag(x, lags))^power) - 1) * scale

If lags is positive and log_diff is TRUE: growth_rate = log(x / lag(x, lags)) * scale

If lags is negative and log_diff is FALSE: growth_rate = (((x / lead(x, -lags))^power) - 1) * scale

If lags is negative and log_diff is TRUE: growth_rate = log(x / lead(x, -lags)) * scale

## See also

Other Vector Function:
`ts_acceleration_vec()`

,
`ts_velocity_vec()`

## Examples

```
# Calculate the growth rate of a time series without any transformations.
ts_growth_rate_vec(c(100, 110, 120, 130))
#> [1] NA 10.000000 9.090909 8.333333
#> attr(,"name")
#> [1] "c(100, 110, 120, 130)"
# Calculate the growth rate with scaling and a power transformation.
ts_growth_rate_vec(c(100, 110, 120, 130), .scale = 10, .power = 2)
#> [1] NA 2.100000 1.900826 1.736111
#> attr(,"name")
#> [1] "c(100, 110, 120, 130)"
# Calculate the log differences of a time series with lags.
ts_growth_rate_vec(c(100, 110, 120, 130), .log_diff = TRUE, .lags = -1)
#> [1] -9.531018 -8.701138 -8.004271 NA
#> attr(,"name")
#> [1] "c(100, 110, 120, 130)"
# Plot
plot.ts(AirPassengers)
plot.ts(ts_growth_rate_vec(AirPassengers))
```