```
<- c(2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011,
Year 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020)
<- c(500, 550, 610, 680, 760, 850, 950, 1060, 1180, 1320, 1470,
Population 1640, 1830, 2040, 2280, 2540, 2830, 3140, 3480, 3850)
<- data.frame(Year, Population) df
```

# Introduction

Hey folks, welcome back to another exciting R programming journey! Today, we’re diving into the fascinating world of exponential regression using base R. Exponential regression is a powerful tool, especially in the realm of data science, and we’ll walk through the process step by step. So, grab your coding hats, and let’s get started!

# Understanding Exponential Regression

Before we jump into the code, let’s quickly grasp the concept of exponential regression. In simple terms, it’s a statistical method used to model relationships where the rate of change of a variable is proportional to its current state. Think of scenarios like population growth, viral spread, or even financial investments.

## Step 1: Your Data

Make sure to replace “your_data.csv” with the actual file name and path of your dataset. This is the foundation of our analysis, so choose a dataset that suits your exponential regression exploration.

## Step 2: Explore Your Data

```
# Take a sneak peek at your data
head(df)
```

```
Year Population
1 2001 500
2 2002 550
3 2003 610
4 2004 680
5 2005 760
6 2006 850
```

`summary(df)`

```
Year Population
Min. :2001 Min. : 500.0
1st Qu.:2006 1st Qu.: 827.5
Median :2010 Median :1395.0
Mean :2010 Mean :1678.0
3rd Qu.:2015 3rd Qu.:2345.0
Max. :2020 Max. :3850.0
```

Understanding your data is crucial. The ‘head()’ function displays the first few rows, and ‘summary()’ gives you a statistical summary. Look for patterns that might indicate exponential growth or decay.

## Step 3: Plot Your Data

```
# Create a scatter plot
plot(
Year,
Population, main = "Exponential Regression",
xlab = "Independent Variable",
ylab = "Dependent Variable"
)
```

Visualizing your data helps in identifying trends. A scatter plot is an excellent choice to see if there’s a potential exponential relationship.

## Step 4: Fit Exponential Model

```
# Fit exponential regression model
<- lm(log(Population) ~ Year, data = df)
model summary(model)
```

```
Call:
lm(formula = log(Population) ~ Year, data = df)
Residuals:
Min 1Q Median 3Q Max
-0.0134745 -0.0032271 0.0008587 0.0037029 0.0108613
Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept) -2.113e+02 4.637e-01 -455.7 <2e-16 ***
Year 1.087e-01 2.307e-04 471.3 <2e-16 ***
---
Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
Residual standard error: 0.005948 on 18 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared: 0.9999, Adjusted R-squared: 0.9999
F-statistic: 2.221e+05 on 1 and 18 DF, p-value: < 2.2e-16
```

Here, we take the logarithm of the dependent variable ‘y’ to linearize the relationship. This facilitates using linear regression to model the data.

## Step 5: Make Predictions

```
# Make predictions
<- exp(predict(
prediction_interval
model, newdata = df,
interval="prediction",
level = 0.95
))
```

Replace ‘new_x’ with the values for which you want to predict ‘y’. The ‘exp()’ function is used to reverse the logarithmic transformation.

## Step 6: Visualize Results

```
# Plot the original data and the regression line
plot(df$Year, df$Population, main="Exponential Regression", xlab="Year",
ylab="Population", pch=19)
lines(df$Year, prediction_interval[,1], col="red", lty=2)
lines(df$Year, prediction_interval[,2], col="blue", lty=2)
lines(df$Year, prediction_interval[,3], col="blue", lty=2)
legend("topright", legend="Exponential Regression", col="red", lwd=2)
```

This code adds the exponential regression line to your scatter plot. It’s a visual confirmation of how well your model fits the data.

# Conclusion

There you have it, a step-by-step guide to performing exponential regression in R using base functions. Remember, the real fun begins when you apply this to your own datasets. Play around, tweak the parameters, and see how well you can predict those future values.

Coding is all about exploration and experimentation, so don’t hesitate to get your hands dirty. Happy coding, and may your data always reveal its secrets in the most exponential way possible!